Rawalpindi is the 4th largest city of Pakistan. It is in Punjab province and located in Pothohar region of Pakistan. Rawalpindi is in the northernmost part of the Punjab province, 275 km (171 mi) to the north-west of Lahore. Rawalpindi is also known as Pindi. Pindi is also known as twin cities along with capital Islamabad. In the 1950s, the city’s economy received a boost during the building of Islamabad (1959–1969) during which time Rawalpindi served as the national capital and its population increased from 180,000 at the time of independence. It is the administrative seat of the Rawalpindi district. The total area of the city is approximately 108.8 square kilometers (42.0 sq. mi). The City-District of Rawalpindi comprises seven autonomous tehsils. Rawalpindi is the military headquarters of the Pakistan Armed forces.
Inhabitants of Rawalpindi District speak a great variety of Punjabi includes Pothohari, Majhi, Pahari, shahpuri, Dhani and Kashmiri. Although Urdu is also the mother tongue of few people but Urdu being a national language is spoken and understood by sizeable population. English is also known and spoken by many people of Rawalpindi. Pashto is also spoken of migrants.
As far as the history of Rawalpindi is concern, Rawalpindi has been from thousands of years, it is believed that a distinct culture flourished on this plateau as far in c1000BC. The nearby town Taxila has Guinness Book of World Record for its world oldest civilization and university. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Rawalpindi. In the succeeding years, Rawalpindi saw an influx of Muhajir, Pashtun and Kashmiri settlers. In late 50’s the city became the interim capital of the country after creation of a new planned capital of Islamabad in the vicinity of Rawalpindi which results most major central government offices and institutions relocate to nearby territory, and its population increases due to migrants from different part of country.
Rawalpindi has a big history in terms of assassinations. At first in 1951, Rawalpindi saw the assassination of the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan in Company Bagh which later turns its name as Liaquat Bagh Park. Then in late 70’s Prime Minister Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto was hanged in Rawalpindi jail. In 2007, Liaquat Bagh Park’s gate in Rawalpindi was also the site of the assassination of Benazir Bhutto.
The city has two main roads: the Grand Trunk Road and is known as The Mall as it passes through the cantonment, Murree Road breaks north from The Mall, its way to Islamabad. Murree road which has been has been a hot spot for various political and social events. Others roads are Said Purr Road, Liaqat road, Kashmir road, Bank road, Civil Line road, Jamia Masjid road, Sarfraz Road, College Road, Rawal Road, Band khana road, Iqbal road, circular road, Haider road, 4-7th roads etc. Liaquat Memorial Hall was constructed in memorization of late Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan. It features a huge auditorium and library. Art shows, public shows and stage Dramas are performed right here frequently. Garden Rawalpindi well-laid garden with sports facilities and children’s park has been developed near the community hall in Rawalpindi. Rawalpindi has its significance in terms of its forces headquarters. It has headquarters of the Pakistan Army, Pakistan Air force and also has an active airbase in chakala cantt of Rawalpindi.
The bazaars of the old city offer exciting bargains. You can leisurely browse in the quaint old shops in sadder bazaar, Moti bazaar, Raja bazaar and Kashmiri bazaar while Sarafa bazaar is famous for beaten gold and silver jewelry, brass and copper-ware. Numerous shopping bazaars, parks and a cosmopolitan population attract shoppers from all over Pakistan and abroad. Rawalpindi Population is combination of people having different background. The crowded alleys of the old city are home to many attractions, including Hindu, Sikh temple’s and Mosques. Art council of is also located near Rawalpindi cricket stadium. People of Pakistan came here from all over the Pakistan and settled here for a long period of time. Local people of Rawalpindi known as Pothwari people. The city is home to several industries and factories. Rawalpindi city has its own culture specially after developing into a large city, Rawalpindi has International Airport, and Railway station International sports ground, good hotels, restaurants, clubs, museums and parks. Rawalpindi forms the base camp for the tourists visiting the holiday resorts and hill station of galiyat area such as murree, nathia gali, kotli, Muzafarabad, Bagh, Abbottabad, Swat, Kaghan, gilgit, hunza, skardo and chitral.
Rawalpindi has many old and new hospitals, universities and parks which made the city more important in terms of health from other cities. People came here from different cities for better facilities of their treatments. It has separate hospitals of heart and lungs which make the city more superior. Rawalpindi has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan which shows that the city has better education environment than other cities. Rawalpindi has both public and private educational institutions. Most educational institutions are gender-based, from primary to university level. The major institutes of Rawalpindi are Arid agricultural university, Fatima jinah women university, Army medical and Rawalpindi medical colleges, University of Eng. and technology etc.
Rawalpindi has many good hotels, restaurants, clubs, museums and parks. It has many important places for foods which show the true heritage of Punjab which is famous for its dishes. The main places are food street, kartar pura, banni chowk and sadder. Along with the food streets there are many parks here in Rawalpindi which enhances the beauty of city including the Ayub National Park, Liaquat Bagh, Nawaz Sharif Park, Jinnah Park, Rumi Park, 502 Park, triangular Park and Children Park.
Rawalpindi has borne many famous international players in different sports which include the world fastest bowler in history of cricket Shoaib Akhter, one of the best hockey forward Shakeel Abbasi and other players which represented the national teams on international circuit. The city have many sports venues includes Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium, KRL Cricket Stadium, Army Hockey Stadium, Army Football Stadium, Municipal Football Stadium, Jinnah Park.
Rawalpindi is chaotic but relatively dust-free. The weather is highly variable due to its location. Rawalpindi faces very moderate type of climate having long and hot summers, short and wet winters. In Monsoons and spring season people of Rawalpindi enjoy the weather of this city. Few years before people of Rawalpindi faces a better weather but now due to cutting of trees and establishment of industries and new housing society the numbers of trees and greenery almost vanish from a large area.therfore a big difference happen in weather of Rawalpindi.