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Mahmud of Ghazni’s Invasions
Mahmud’s invasions chronologically:
Mahmud of Ghazni was a Muslim ruler of Ghazni. He conducted many successful invasions. He was a brave warrior but not a good administrator. He invaded India 17 times and looted the wealth of India. The chronology of his invasions is as under;
- In 994, defeated the Samanid rebels Faiq and gained the title of Saif ad Dawla.
- In 997 defeated Kara Khanud Khanate.
- In 999 captured Khorasan, Balkh, Herat and Merv from the Samanids.
- In 1000 captured Sistan from Saffarid dynasty.
- In 1001 defeated Raja Jayapala at Peshawar in the battle of Peshawar.
- In 1002 dethroned Khalaf ibn Ahmed of Saffarids.
- In 1004 Bhera is annexed.
- In 1005-6 Multan was captured from the Ismaili’s.
- In 1005 defends Balkh and Khorasan.
- In 1005 the rebel Sewakpal was defeated.
- In 1008 Mahmud defeated the Indian Confederacy of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj, Delhi and Ajmer and captures the Shahi treasury.
- In 1010 attacked Ghor and annexed from Amir Suri.
- In 1010 Abul Fateh Daood got imprisoned for Multan revolt.
- In 1011 attacked Nagarkot in Punjab hills.
- In 1012 invaded Garchistan and overthrew its ruler Abu Nasr Muhammad.
- In 1013 Triochanpala was defeated in Bulnat.
- In 1013-14 he captured Thanesar.
- In 1015 attacked Kashmir but was unsuccessful due to inclement weather.
- In 1017 Kanauj and Meerut submitted without war.
- In 1018 attacked Multan and captured it from Chandra Pala.
- In 1021 Lahore was annexed and Malik Ayaz was raised to the king of Lahore.
- In 1023 the official annexation of Punjab by Ghaznavids.
- In 1024 Ajmer, Nehrwala and Kathiawar were conquered. It was last major campaign of Mahmud of Ghazni.
- In 1025 he attacked Somnath and broke the Lingam himself. That why he is entitled as the idol breaker. He looted the wealth from the temple of Somnath.
- In 1025 also marches against the Jats of the Jood mountains.
- In 1027 he captured Rey, Isfahan and Hamadan from the Buyids Dynasty.
- In 1028-29 Merv and Nishapur were lost to the Central Asian Seljuk.
Reasons of Mahmud’s Invasions:
Some of the reasons of Mahmud’s invasions described by historians are as under;
- Mahmud attacked Hindustan to glorify Islam by attacking the temples and breaking Hindu God idols.
- India was wealthy state at that time. Thus Mahmud had his eyes on the wealth of India. According to the economic perspective Mahmud invaded for wealth. If he had invaded for political purpose he would have ruled as well but he was only interested in the wealth of India.
- He needed wealth to feed his army for he wanted to expand his empire.
- Some historians say that he wanted to be called one of the greatest conquerors of the world that’s why he invaded many regions.
Effects or Aftermath of Mahmud’s invasions:
The effects of Mahmud’s invasions are under:
- The conquests of Mahmud paved way for Muslims in India.
- Punjab became part of Ghaznavid empire.
- India’s wealth was plundered and looted.
- The shortcomings and weaknesses of the Indian rulers were exposed in the battle field.