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Since the emergence of Pakistan, Kashmir has been the bone of contention between India and Pakistan. Kashmir’s’ have been in continuous struggle for independence from India Since 1947 but as they started using arms in their liberation struggle, a new phase of history began. It was the disputed 1987s elections when some elements from the state assembly formed militant wings, this thing acted as a catalyst for the emergence of armed insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir that caused thousands of lives. The widespread violence, abuse of human rights added fuel to fire besides this there are some other reasons like religion political rights mujahedeen influence and role of Pakistan that led Kashmir’s towards armed aggression to get rid of Indian influence.
If we look into background we came to know that differences emerge from partition and violence created problems one of them was settling of boundaries and accession of the states. Kashmir emerged as the bone of caused four military clashes between Pakistan and India. The widespread violence and abuses of human rights in Jammu and Kashmir became the most important reasons behind the liberation struggle. It is estimated that the number of Indian troops in Jammu and Kashmir is close to 6 lacks which have engaged in violence and abuses of human rights. These troops operated under such power that allow them to curtail civil liberties kunan poshpora incident which occurred in 1991 is a biggest example of violence of human rights.
Jammu and Kashmir is a Muslim majority area perhaps the only Muslims majority state under Hindu majority India. In spite of these India has always gave preference Hindus over Muslims. This preference enhanced the feeling of deprivation and ultimately led towards the using arms in the way of liberation struggle.
The invasion of Afghanistan by USSR gave boom to insurgency. The policy of islamisation by Zia ul haq helped in spreading of theoretical Islamic ideology in Jammu and Kashmir. The mujahedeen fighters, lashkar e taiba, jash Muhammad and harkat ul mujahedeen were amongst the major splinter groups. All of them have different aims in Kashmir some wanted complete independence from Pakistan and India and others wanted unification with Pakistan.
If we look it in Pakistan’s foreign policy perspective Pakistan had always supported the cause of Kashmir’s through armed manpower and insurgency. Pakistan not only used international forum as diplomatic tool but also helped mujahedeen and various other splinter groups but after 9 11 Pakistan’s foreign policy was changed. And government stopped helping the Kashmir’s in their freedom struggle as it was doing in the history. Since partition the Kashmir’s had been fighting for independence but after the Russian attack the violence and human rights abuses increase. Various political parties and military wings were developed which played major role in Kashmir freedom movement.