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Colombo conference was held on April 28 1954 in Ceylon, and it was ended on 2nd May 1954.This conference was attended by Ceylon, Indonesia, Burma, India and Pakistan. Participants of this conference were also known as Colombo powers. They all were met to discuss the problems and issues which were related to all of them. They exchange there views regarding their common interest in this conference. This conference was not met on a particular issue.
World War II was ended in 1945 but its end was not able to bring peace and security in the world. After the World War II colonialism started its backward journey however many Afro-Asian states got independence while many states still were striving for independence e.g Vietnam in Indochina etc. Due to this colonialism some Afro-Asian countries were facing colonial problems like Kashmir issue which was a source of constant conflict between India and Pakistan since their independence, Palestine question which was a source of conflict between Arabian countries etc. These Afro-Asian countries at that time were also so much anxious about the nuclear weapons. Even though United Nation was present already to solve the problems of world but it was not handling problems properly. So these Afro-Asian countries organize conferences to solve the problems of their common interests.
India and Pakistan were major participants in Colombo conference (1954) along with Indonesia, Burma and Ceylon. The prime ministers of all these five countries participated in this conference. At the inaugural session all of these 5 countries were laying stress on different issues. Pakistan laid emphasis on Kashmir issue; Ceylon laid emphasis on the danger of communism and asked for Mutual Corporation regarding this point. Burma was stressing on economic field. India laid stress to bring harmony in its relation with china. Indonesia was asking for Afro-Asian conference.
In this conference ceasefire was proposed in Indochina conflict without a delay and it was also suggested to do direct negotiation regarding this issue. In this conference participants also raise there voice against nuclear weapons and other mass destructive instruments.
All the participants of this conference condemned colonialism and they laid emphasis on establishing democracy and democratic institution in their countries. They also condemned interference of communist or anti communist countries in there affairs. When the question for Red Chinese representation in the United Nation was asked all the participants supported it, to bring peace, release tension and to promote stability in the world. They supported Red China to solve the problem of the world specifically for the Far East problems with a realistic approach.
This conference gave the opportunity to the prime minister of India and Pakistan to meet with each other and to discuss great problems such as great power rivalries, Indochina conflict, colonialism etc though both of them disagreed with each other on Kashmir issue. Leaders of Colombo conference have international pressure from Arab, Asian states and also from India. They all demanded for political negotiation to bring peace and end of military struggle in Korea. Due to Indian pressure this conference spent most of its time in discussing about Indochina conflict. Colombo conference also discuss Palestine question. All of the participants showed deep sympathy to the people of Palestine and they all hoped to bring just and peaceful settlement in Palestine. In all these issues there was no conflict between India and Pakistan however this conference was unable to solve Kashmir conflict. Ceylon played a vital role in this conference. Prime Minister Kotelawala of Ceylon suggests military defense alliance of the Colombo powers as an alternative to the regional security doctrine given by United States.
Attention of this Conference was attracted by Indonesian prime minister who asked a question where we stand now. And then he himself gave the answered briefly. Ceylon played a vital role in this conference. In Colombo conference it was discussed to hold Afro-Asian conference for the first time. This conference gave a notable outcome in form of Bangdung conference which was inaugurated in December 1954 in this conference they also laid emphasis on Afro-Asian conference. Idea of Afro-Asian conference was given by Indonesia during Colombo conference.
Colombo conference played a vital role in bringing unity in Afro-Asian countries at some level. It played important in Indochina conflict but the issue of cold war lay down its worth specifically as a regional effort. This conference tried to solve major problems of that time and was able to solve these problems to some extent. It paved the way for future peaceful conferences which had deep impact in world’s politics. However Pakistan was not able to solve Kashmir issue. It tried to bring stability and harmony in world.