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The majority of the Indian nationals fought bravely against the rule of the foreigner but failed in their bold attempts to overthrow the British Raj. The causes of this failure are many but the important ones are discussed as below.
The foremost cause was the sudden start of the war in confusion, without any preparation or proper planning. Secondly since there was an extreme lack of communication and coordination among various groups of freedom fighters who started their uprising according to their own wishes, it became easy for the English troops to curb the revolt of different areas on by one.
Thirdly there was no experienced leader among them to lead the Indian soldiers. They had declared Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, their leader but instead of warfare he was devoted to poetry and was too old and incompetent to lead the revolutionaries. The British troops, on the other hand, were endowed with extremely competent generals like Edwards and Lawrence.
Fourthly, English troops were modern and strikingly advanced not only in warfare but also in new ways of swift and speedy communication. They did not have to cross long roads and grounds to deliver a message or order but could simply wire it with a few minutes. The Indians on the other hand were devoid of such means. That’s why they utterly fell behind and got defeated.
Fifthly, the English had full command on waters due to their advanced navy they got enforcement from their Crimean fronts to counter Indian aggression without any delay. Being equipped with modern weapons especially Enfield rifles they could hunt down Indians who were still fighting with their sticks, swords and daggers to fight their highly powerful opponents.
The economic conditions of Indian troops also entailed an obvious cause of their defeat. On the one hand the war started out of awkwardness, mismanagement and lack of planning and even the emperor was practically penniless who was asking for loans from Delhi landlords but they were determined to save their money, not their freedom. The British troops, on the other hand, had been wealthy because the prosperous regions of India were totally under their control.
Another major reason was the treachery of Sikhs who had been grudgingly fighting against Muslims for a long time. The East India Company took advantage of their feeling of antipathy and aroused them towards their own countrymen. Sikh states like Patiyala and Jind helped the English troops in crushing the native disturbance in Punjab. In the North-West Frontier Province there were certain feudal lords like the Wali of Swat displayed their allegiance to the alien rulers. Even in the Indian army there were some traitors like Moulvi Rajab Ali and Mirza Elahi Baksh who were honored and awarded with affluence for providing information to he Crown about whereabouts of the Indian Emperor.