Follow Us On:
The immediate measures of the Martial law regime were successful but in the long term failed to solve the problems.
- The concentration of political power in his own hands.
- Dictatorial powers of President: people wanted a parliamentary form of democracy
- Right of adult franchise curtailed by the system of basic democracy
- Hold of the military hierarchy, civil bureaucracy, and rural elite in policymaking.
- Disqualification of politicians and political parties under Elective Bodies Disqualification Order (EBDO).
- Control of Press and Media under Press and Publication (Amendment) Ordinance: Pakistan Times, Imroz, Mashriq were placed under National Press Trust.
- Restrictions on Individuals fundamental rights. State of emergency.
- Land and Muslim family laws Reforms were revolutionary in words than in deeds.
- Urbanization but not facilities in the cities.
- Strength of Convention Muslim League was fictitious
- The opposition of One Unit by the small provinces.
- Exaggerated claims about development in the ceremonies of Celebrations of a decay.
- Interference in Religion (Two Eids in 1967)
- News of his illness in early 1968.
- Roomer that he was going to appoint Gohar as his successor.
- Withdrawal of military support: Reduction on Armed Forces’ in the budget of 1967-68
- Economic growth in quantitative terms not in qualitative terms.
- Economic disparity: 80% of the bank assets were controlled by 22 families
- No Foreign Aid after 1965.
- Rapid Growth of Prices
DISSATISFACTION OF EAST PAKISTAN
- East Pakistan considered Marshal law as the rule of the Punjabi-dominated Army.
- Issue of Provincial Autonomy In East Pakistan
- East Pakistan was politically deprived.
- East Pakistan was economically deprived.
- The dynamic leadership of Bhutto, Asghar Khan, Mujeeb, Bhashani, etc.
- The wide popularity of Awami League in East Pakistan and P.P.P in West Pakistan.
Bhutto & PPP
- PPP established in Dec. 1967: Objectives of genuine democracy, Islamic Socialism, Adult franchise, and Freedom of Press.
- Slogan: ‘Roti Kapra aur Makan’.
- The exploitation of Tashkent by Bhutto: Kashmir
- Students-Police clash (Nov. 1968) at Rawalpindi. One student died. Bhutto attended his funeral. Achieved support of students.
- The arrest of Bhutto on Nov. 13, 1968, as he insists masses violate the law.
- Asghar Khan continued the movement.
Mujeeb and AL
- Agartala Conspiracy Case (separation of East Pakistan from West Pakistan with the armed aid of India) against Mujeeb and a band of civil and military officers in Jan. 1968.
- Bhashani gave the lead till the release of Mujeeb.
- Slogan: ‘Gheraoo, Jalaoo’. Burnt govt. offices and ministers’ houses. Compelled a large number of BD’s to resign. Some were burnt alive.
- National Democratic Front (NDF): in Oct. 1962 by a group of East Pakistanis for the restoration of democracy. Became party after the death of Suharwardy, its leader.
- Combined Opposition Parties (COP): during Presidential elections of 1964-65. Failed to launch effective movement due to internal differences.
- Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM): After the expire of the ban on EBDOed politicians. April 1967. Included 5 parties i) Council ML. ii) Nizam-i-Islam Party iii) Jamat-i-Islami iv) Awami League (Nasarullah Group) v) NDF. Demands:
- Direct Elections on adult franchise
- Full powers to the directly elected parliament
- removal of emergency
- restoration of civil rights
- release of all political prisoners.
- Democratic Action Committee (DAC): Jan. 9, 1968. Included PDM, AL (six points) AL (Wali Khan Group), and JUI. 3 more demands:
- i) withdrawal of all prohibitory orders under section 144.
- ii) restoration of the right to strike
iii) withdrawal of all curbs on the press.
Round Table Conference with Ayub on March 10, 1969. Ayub accepted 2 demands:
- direct elections on adult franchise
- restoration of the parliamentary system.
- Anti Ayub Movement (1968-69) launched by the Urban middle class i.e. Students, lawyers, teachers, doctors, laborers, politicians, etc.
- Joint Labor Council called for laborers strike.
- Central Medical Body held a successful strike of the Doctors.
- Association of teachers participated in the anti-Ayub movement.
Ayub resigned and Marshal law was re-imposed on March 25, 1969.