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Political History

  • Maurya Dynasty

    Maurya Dynasty

    The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power inancient India, ruled by...

  • Malik Ghulam Mohammad (1895-1956)

    Malik Ghulam Mohammad (1895-1956)

    Born in Lahore in 1895, Malik Ghulam Mohammad belonged to a middle-class family of Kakazai tribe. Gh...

  • Lukhnow Pact

    Lukhnow Pact

    Introduction        The Lucknow agreement took a new twist with change in Muslim League’s political ...

Pervez Musharraf (1943- )

The tenth President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf is a retired four star general of the Pakistan Army. He served as the thirteenth Chief of the Army Staff, as well as the tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee and took over the administration of the country in a ... Read More »

Enlightened Moderation

Enlightened moderation is a term coined by the former President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf. It refers to the approach which, in his opinion, should be adopted to while practicing the religion Islam. He believed that Islam needs to be practiced in moderation as opposed to the fundamentalist version of the ... Read More »

Islamization under Zia (1977-1988)

When Zia-ul-Haq took the power in his hands, there was a popular conception that every government paid only lip service to Islam and no sincere effort was ever made in this direction; the ruling class had rather resisted the enforcement of Islam. General Zia was aware of such feelings. So, ... Read More »

The Interim Constitution of 1972

The interim constitution was that provisional document adopted by the national assembly on 17th April and enforced on 21th April 1972 which provided the guideline for running the administration of the country till 14th Aug 1972 when the permanent constitution of 1973 became operational. The emergency declared by Yahya Khan ... Read More »

Partition of Bengal (1905-1911)

The partition of Bengal was the most important event during the rule of Lord Curzon. It was carried out mainly for the convenience of administration. Bengal in those days was the biggest province of India extending over 1, 89, 000 square miles with a population of 80 million. It was ... Read More »

Simla Deputation (1906)

The Simla deputation proved a landmark in the history of modern India, because for the very first time the Hindu-Muslim conflict, which stared with the Urdu-Hindi controversy, was lifted to the constitutional plane. The Indians were not satisfied with the Indian council Act of 1892. Especially, the act failed to ... Read More »

Separate Electorates

Separate Electorates are that type of elections in which minorities select their own representatives separately, as opposed to Joint Electorates where people are selected collectively. When minorities fear that they would not get representation in state affairs and government then they demand separate electorates. Same was the case with the ... Read More »

Establishment of All India Muslim League

After the creation of the Indian national Congress and its time as a ‘representative’ party for the people of the Indian sub-continent, there was felt a need to reassess its claims at unbiased representation. From the very start of its existence the Congress had shown clear its interest to safeguard ... Read More »

Minto-Morley Reforms (1909)

By 1909, there was seen a great deal of political consciousness amongst the Indians. Similarly, political parties like Indian National Congress and All Indian Muslim League had emerged. By then, the British were much influenced and affected by these political parties. As previous reforms and acts did not meet the ... Read More »

Kanpur Mosque Tragedy (1913)

The U.P Government granted a total of two and half lack rupees to widen the roads of the Kanpur and to fulfill other welfare works. This scheme also included AB road. The widening of this road became a serious issue. The real problem was that if it were widened straight, ... Read More »

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