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Causes of Ayub’s Decline

Immediate measure of the Martial law regime were successful but in the long term failed to solve the problems.  GENERAL REASONS

  • Concentration of political power in his own hands.
  • Dictatorial powers of President: people want parliamentary form of democracy
  • Right of adult franchise curtailed by the system of basic democracy
  • Hold of military hierarchy, civil bureaucracy and rural elite in policy making.
  • Disqualification of politicians and political parties under Elective Bodies Disqualification Order (EBDO).
  • Control of Press and Media under Press and Publication (Amendment) Ordinance: Pakistan Times, Imroz, Mashriq were placed under National Press Trust.
  • Restrictions on Individuals fundamental rights. State of emergency.
  • Land and Muslim family laws Reforms were revolutionary in words than in deeds.
  • Urbanization but not facilities in the cities.
  • Strength of Convention Muslim League was fictitious
  • Opposition of One Unit by the small provinces.
  • Exaggerated claims about development in the ceremonies of Celebrations of a decay.
  • Interference in Religion (Two Eids in 1967)
  • News of his illness in early 1968.
  • Roomer that he was going to appoint Gohar as his successor.
  • Withdrawal of military support: Reduction on Armed Forces’ in budget of 1967-68


  • Economic growth in quantitative terms not in qualitative terms.
  • Economic disparity: 80% of the bank assets were controlled by 22 families
  • No Foreign Aid after 1965.
  • Rapid Growth of Prices


  • East Pakistan considered Marshtial law as the rule of Punjabi dominated Army.
  • Issue of Provincial Autonomy In East Pakistan
  • East Pakistan was politically deprived.
  • East Pakistan was economically deprived..


  • Dynamic leadership of Bhutto, Asghar Khan, Mujeeb, Bhashani etc.
  • Wide popularity of Awami League in East Pakistan and P.P.P in West Pakistan.

Bhutto & PPP

  • PPP established in Dec. 1967: Objectives of genuine democracy, Islamic Socialism, Adult franchise and Freedom of Press.
  • Slogan: ‘Roti Kapra aur Makan’.
  • Exploitation of Tashkent by Bhutto: Kashmir
  • Students-Police clash (Nov. 1968) at Rawalpindi. One student died. Bhutto attended his funeral. Achieved support of students.
  • Arrest of Bhutto on Nov. 13, 1968 as he insists masses to violate law.
  • Asghar Khan continued the movement.

Mujeeb and AL

  • Agartala Conspiracy Case (separation of East Pakistan from West Pakistan with the armed aid of India) against Mujeeb and a band of civil and military officers in Jan. 1968.
  • Bhashani gave lead till the release of Mujeeb.
  • Slogan: ‘Gheraoo, Jalaoo’. Burnt govt. offices and ministers houses. Compelled a large number of BD’s to resign. Some were burnt alive.

Political Alliances

  • National Democratic Front (NDF): in Oct. 1962 by group of East Pakistanis for the restoration of democracy. Became party after death of Suharwardy, its leader.
  • Combined Opposition Parties (COP): during Presidential elections of 1964-65. Failed to launch effective movement due to the internal differences.
  • Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM): After the expire of the ban on EBDOed politicians. April 1967. Included 5 parties i) Council ML. ii) Nizam-i-Islam Party      iii) Jamat-i-Islami iv) Awami League (Nasarullah Group) v) NDF. Demands:

i)     Direct Elections on adult franchise ii)   Full powers to the directly elected parliament iii) removal of emergency iv) restoration of civil rights v)   release of all political prisoners.

  • Democratic Action Committee (DAC): Jan. 9, 1968. Included PDM, AL (six points) AL (Wali Khan Group) and JUI. 3 more demands:

i)   withdrawal of all prohibitary orders under section 144. ii)  restoration of right to strike iii) withdrawal of all curbs on the press. Round Table Conference with Ayub on March 10, 1969. Ayub accepted 2 demands: i)     direct elections on adult franchise ii)   restoration of parliamentary system. DAC dissolved. Non Political Elements

  • Anti Ayub Movement (1968-69) launched by Urban middle class i.e. Students, lawyers, teachers, doctors, laborers, politicians etc.
  • Joint Labor Council called for laborers strike.
  • Central Medical Body held a successful strike of the Doctors.
  • Association of teachers participated in anti-Ayub movement.

Ayub resigned and Marshal law was re-enforced on March 25, 1969.

About Usama Majeed

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