Mahmood Gaznavi was born in 971AD, in khurasan. Mahmood Ghazni was the son of Abu Mansur Sabuktigin, who was a Turkish slave soldier of the samanid ruler. In 994 Mahmood joined his father in the conquest of Ghazni for Samanid ruler, it was the time of instability for Samanid Empire. In 998AD Mahmood took control of the Ghazni and also conquered Qandahar.
In 1001 AD, he started his military companies, which were lasted before his death in 1030 AD. Mahmud’s campaigns seem to have been motivated by religious zeal against both the Fatimid’s Shiites and non-Muslims; Buddhists, Jains and Hindus. Mahmood of Ghazna was one of the undefeatable military commanders of the World. He attacked South Asia seventeen times successfully and went back to Ghazni every time with a great victory. He fought against the forces of Jaipal, Annadpal, Tarnochalpal, Kramta and the joint forces of Hindu Rajas and Maharajas but all of them were forced to flee away from the battlefield due to Mahmood’s war strategy as a general.
The military campaigns of Mahmood Ghaznavi made him controversial personality in the history of South Asia. Mahmood of Ghazni destroyed important Hindu shrine- Krishna Janmabhoomi Temple (known as Kesava Deo Temple) in 1017 AD along with several other Hindu and Buddhist temples in the holy city of Mathura. Mahmud of Ghazni destroyed and looted one of the most sacred temples of Hindus- Somnath Temple in 1025 AD killing over 50,000 people who tried to defend it. Due to this Mahmood Ghaznavi is considered as a looter and plunder by the most of the non-Muslims of South Asia.
Mahmood of Ghazna became the sign of respect and bravery for South Asian Muslim and is considered as their Hero. Mahmood weakened the power of the neighboring rulers as they could not attack over the newly established Muslim state. The booty of war was used to consolidate the power of the state. After the conquest of Multan and Lahore, Mahmood made Punjab a part of his empire in 1021. He also established his provincial headquarters at Lahore. Ghazni and Lahore become the center of learning and culture. Thus Mahmood established a strong Muslim empire, which was lasted for hundreds years. He also exposed the weakness of Hindu rajas, which enabled the Muslim leaders to conquer India in future. These all made him the Hero for the Muslims of South Asia.
Mahmood of Ghazna was a great patron of learning. Firdosi the poet, Behqi the historian and Al-Biruni the scholar and scientest were associated with his court. Ghazni became one of the most important and beautiful cities of the Islamic world. Lahore also became a great center of learning and culture.
Mahmud was also a deeply religious man. He himself wrote a book on Fiqh. He had respect for other religions. A large number of Hindus lived in Ghazni, and they enjoyed religious freedom. One of his commanders named Tilak was a Hindu. A number of soldiers in his army were also Hindus. Mahmud attacked the Hindu Temples in India because of political and not religious reasons. Mahmud Ghaznavi died on April 30, 1030AD.