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Kashmir Dispute

In modern world the peace of the world is hijacked by some issues including Kashmir Issue. The word community has tried to resolve many such issues but the fate of Kashmir is left to be resolved mutually by India and Pakistan. Kashmir is located in the north and north east of Pakistan sharing its borders with Afghanistan, China and India.

In 18th century Kashmir was rolled by Pashtoon empire, In 1819 by Ranjit Singh. In 1846 Kashmir was seeded by east India Company and was solved to Gulab Singh.

Kashmir was ruled by Hindu Mahrajas from 1846to 1947. in 1947 British India was divided on the principle t

At Muslim majority regions go to the Pakistan and rest to India. The district Gurdaspur was given to India which was a Muslim majority region and was the only road link from India to Kashmir Valley. This produced and armed conflict between Kashmiri Muslims and Maharaja Forces. Pakistani tribal’s men from Dir entered to Kashmir to support. Mahraja asked the Indian forces for help. The Maharaja fled to Jammu Kashmir on 25th October 1947. Maharaja signed a commitment of military accession with Indian Government for the exchange of military support which was accepted by Mount Batten on the behalf of British Crown.

The Indian Government and Mountbatten announced that after to restoration of law and order the issue sho0uld be resolved on the wished of peoples. Jawaharlal Nehru decided that a referendum will be held under the supervision of U.N, and we want it to be a fair and just reference to the people. But since till that promise has not fulfilled by Indian Government. War between Indian and Pakistan over Kashmir started in 1947-48. India brought the Kashmir Issue to the U.N secretary council. The U.N council passed resolution on 21st April, 1948. The resolution imposed an immediate seize fire and called on Pakistan to withdraw all the military forces and would have no say in Kashmir politics and India would retain a minimum military presence and the issue should be resolved through a democratic method conducted by U.N.

Both Pakistan and India did not follow the resolution, four other resolutions were passed by U N revising the term of the resolution of 1948, then proposals was given by UN, which was accepted by Pakistan but refused by India. Under the term of Simla agreement the ceasefire line was renamed as line of control in 1972.India claimed the conquered area as apart of its state and line of control as border, but Pakistan consistently refused to accept line of control as border.

The Kashmiri are fighting for their independence since 1989 against Indian forces .the Indian government blaming Pakistan involved in Kashmir supporting armed forces against India.

The Kashmir is divided into the hands of Pakistan and India. The people of Indian-Kashmir are fighting to get their self representation as an independent state, while the part with Pakistan is enjoying its separate state position.

The Pakistan administrated part has the position of a free state as they have their own president and administration, but highly influenced by Pakistan. Gilgit Baltistan got the position of 5th province on the wishes of the people of Gilgit.


Population distribution

  1. 1. Administrated by India:
Name Population Muslims Hindus Buddhist Others
Kashmir Valley 4 million 95% 4% 1%
Jammu 3 million 30% 66% 4%
Ladakh 0.25 million 46% 1% 50% 3%


  1. 2. Administrated by Pakistan:
Name Population Muslims Hindus Buddhist Others
Northern areas 1million 99%
Azad Kashmir 2.6 million 100%

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