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Jalaluddin Khilji

Malik Feroz, the founder of Khalji dynasty, ascended the throne on 3rd June, 1290 as Jalaluddin Firoz Shah. The Khaljis were Central Asian in origin but had lived in Afghanistan so long that they had become different from the Turks in their customs and manners. The Muslim population of Delhi was overwhelmingly Turkish and did not react favorably to the change. So Firoz enthroned himself at Kaikubad and preferred to stay there for some time. Soon, the mildness and generosity of Firoz removed all popular prejudice against him, and he formally entered the city and took residence in the old palace. He came to power after the overthrow of the so- called Slave Dynasty. As regards an estimate of Jalaluddin, he was successful general before becoming the king but gave up the policy of aggression after becoming the Sultan. He followed the policy of peace and reconciliation towards all. He was very modest. It is stated that he did not ride in the courtyard of the palace of Balban and also refused to sit upon it on the ground that he used to stand before it as a servant. When he ascended the throne, he adopted the policy of appeasement by retaining some of the leading officers of the past, Alauddin Kishlu Khan famous as Malik Chajju, a nephew of Balban and a sole survival of old dynasty, was permitted to retain his governorship of Karah- Manikpur. A couple of months after his accession Malik Chajju pressed his claim to the throne and assumed royal title at Karah. He started for Delhi with a large army but was stopped near Badaun and defeated. So his revolt not be successful.

 

His policy to deal with the thieves and thugs was not based on the harsh and severe punishments. It is stated that once a number of thieves were arrested and brought before the Sultan. Instead of punishing them, he gave a lecture on the evils of stealing. On another accession thousands of thugs and murderers were captured. Instead of punishing them the Sultan sent them to Bengal in boats down the Gangas and there they were set free. Firoz was more successful in his a campaign against the Mongols. In 1992, a vast horde of Mongols under Abdullah was overpowered and they withdrew. Ulghu, a descendant of Chengiz Khan decided to stay back. He accepted Islam with 4000 of his followers and the Sultan gave his daughter in marriage. According to Dr.K. Lal, “Firoz was failure as a king, a perfect gentleman and one of the most pious Muslims of his time”. The death of Firoz was the exceptional case in history. A plot was hatched by his nephew Alauddin, to kill him in order to occupy the throne, to which he had not a shadow of claim either by divine or by human law. When Sultan met his nephew and son- in- law with few unarmed attendants, Sultan embraced his nephew, on the signal of Alauddin, Sultan was given two swords- blow. Later, the head of Sultan was cut from his body and the other followers of Sultan were also put to death.

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