The conflict between India and Pakistan originated as a clash between Indian and Muslim nationalism during British colonial rule. The relations between Pakistan and India are characterizes by periodic ups and downs.
Throughout 1949-51, there was no direct military conflict between two dominions and several meetings, conferences and agreements were signed on different questions which were prevailing in the initial important years of independence.
Major crisis between Pakistan and India in 1949-51 were legitimate and were under consideration throughout these years.
There are number of conflicting issues between India and Pakistan but Kashmir is the core issue that has decisively led to the worsening of their relationship. The disputed Kashmir State has assumed much strategic importance for both countries and has become the cause of arms race between them. Throughout these three years, a number of series of direct and indirect talks have been held between India and Pakistan to normalize the relationship for seeking a just solution of Kashmir dispute but every attempt has failed primarily due to Indian indifferent approach towards the issue.
The war on Kashmir which had started earlier, ended on 1 January 1949, with the establishment of a ceasefire line through a resolution by Security Council. The status of the territory remained in dispute because an agreed referendum to confirm the accession was never held. The cease-fire has remained in existence since 1949. No plebiscite has been held and thus the Kashmir issue still remains disputed and unresolved.
At the time of independence, many communal riots broke out in different areas of India and Pakistan. These riots had a great impact on the status of minorities in the two nations. Due to brutal killings by the majority community, a huge number of Muslims migrated from India, and Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan. Yet, the mass migration failed to solve the minority problem. Even after the migration, almost half of the Muslims living in the Sub-continent were left in India and a great number of Hindus in Pakistan. Those who were left behind were unable to become an integral part of the societies they were living in. The people and government of their countries looked upon them as suspects. In this critical situation, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan urged to reach a solution to the problem. He also proposed a meeting with his Indian counterpart to determine how to put an end to the communal riots and the fear of war.
The two Prime Ministers met in Delhi on April 2, 1950, and discussed the matter in detail. On April 8, the two leaders signed an agreement, which was later entitled as Liaquat-Nehru Pact. This pact provided a ‘bill of rights’ for the minorities of India and Pakistan. Its aim was to address the following three issues:
1. To alleviate the fears of the religious minorities on both sides.
2. To promote communal peace.
3. To create an atmosphere in which the two countries could resolve their other differences.
The most important of Indo-Pakistan disputes was the question of sharing the waters of the Indus basin. On April 1, 1948, India cut off the supply of water from the two headwork’s under her control. This dispute was existing till a solution acceptable to both governments was agreed upon in 1960 at the Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement at Karachi. This treaty is commonly known as the “Indus Water Treaty”.
Despite the 1947-1948 war in Kashmir, propaganda campaigns against each other and non resolution of bilateral problems that led India and Pakistan to oppose each other at the regional and international levels on a number of issues.
Time period between1949-51 was consisted of diplomatic constrains and both the countries had tried to resolve their differences by avoiding any military conflicts but the relations over Kashmir question remained less flexible and stiff.