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Carnatic Wars

Carnatic Wars

The Carnatic Wars refers to a series of military conflicts between the British East India Company and French East India Company along with the role played by the Nawab of Carnatic and the Nizam of Hyderabad. Three wars were fought between 1745 and 1763. The immediate result of these wars was that struggle for power in India between the French and the British was over the French influence was doomed forever and British were able to consolidate their foothold in India.

 

Great Britain and France were the two main European powers. Both had been looking for an opportunity to outclass the other. The rivalry was manifestly obvious in the colonial affairs where the mercantile system was the main driving force causing numerous commercial wars in 18th century both powers were contenders in Indian sub-continent as well striving to maximize their influence at cost curtailing the others. The French power was at its climax during the governorship of Dupliex (1742-54). However, towards the closing days of his term, this power started dwindling and evaporated completely by early 1760s.at the same time, the British East India Company established its stronghold gradually. The tug of war between the sides in India witness practical demonstration in Carnatic where three wars were fought having intimate relationship with the two great European wars – Austrian War of Succession and the Seven Years War.

The First Carnatic War (1745-1748) was an off shot of the Austrian War of Succession on Indian front. It started with the English capturing of the French ships that was retaliated by the latter by taking over Madras. The English requested help from Nawab of Carnatic but he was bitterly defeated at the hands of the French. But as the war in Europe came to an end with the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748 the First Carnatic war also came to an end. English got back Madras.

 

The road to the Second Carnatic war was prepared by the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk that was followed by a civil war of succession between his son and grandson joined by other stakeholders as well. This war of succession was the Second Carnatic War.mir Ahmad Ali( Nasir Jung), Nizam’s son and Muzzafar Jung, Nizam’s grandson were the two contender to the throne chanda sahib wanted to become the Nawab of Arcot, so he also joined the war on the side of Muzzafar Jung. They were joined by the French as well. The French were altogether victorious at the beginning. They were able to place their nominees on the in control of the affairs. On the other hand English had sided worth Nasir Jung but they were humiliated. They were getting desperate to take revenge. Robert Clive made a successful bid in 1751 to recapture Arcot that, however, paved the way for succeeding English victories over French. They made Muhammad Ali the Nawab of Carnatic. All French effort to reverse the trend ended in fiasco. Dupliex was recalled that sealed french fate in India. Treaty of Pondicherry concluded the war . muahammad Ali was recognised as the Nawab of Carnatic but the French influence over Nizam of Hyderabad was retained.

 

In 1756, there started the Third Carnatic War started as the Seven Year War in Europe got inception. The war went beyond south India to Wandiwash Bengal. The French had to face humiliation at a number of places. They were defeated at Chandermangore in 1757, at in 1760 and lost Pondicherry in 1761. However, the war came to an end with signing of the treaty but of Paris. Pondicherry and Chandermangore were returned to France their influence in India was reduced to nothing. Their ambition to establish an empire in India was shattered. The success in Carnatic wars enhanced British prestige and they were left alone to decide the fate of the crumbling Muslim rule in India.

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