In modern warfare, the ballistic missiles play an important role for the internal and external security of a state. These missiles largely enhanced both offensive and defensive capabilities of the developed countries and a handful of the third world countries like Argentina, Brazil, Pakistan, Egypt, India, etc. Countries like America, Russia, and China have the most highly modernized ballistic missiles which have been deployed inside and outside of their countries in order to defend and maintain their hegemony over each other. So, it is an admitted fact that in modern warfare the most advanced weapons bring about the horrible defeat of the enemy forces and in this context ballistic missiles are the best choice. Ballistic missiles, thus, play a decisive role in the modern warfare.
Basically, a ballistic missile is a missile that follows a suborbital ballistic flight path with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target and these ballistic missiles are governed by the laws of orbital mechanics and ballistics. Nazi Germany was the first to develop ballistic missiles known as the V-2 rocket in the 1930s and 1940s under the direction of Wernber Von Braun. These ballistic missiles can be launched from fixed sites or mobile launchers including vehicles, aircraft, ships and submarines. In addition to that ballistic missiles can vary in range and use, and be often divided into categories on the bases of range.
Firstly, the Tactical ballistic missiles are those missiles that come under the categories of low range missiles and its range is between 150 km and 300 km. Another low range is known as battlefield range ballistic missile [BRBM] with a range of less than 100 km. Secondly, the medium range ballistic missiles which are better known by the name of a theater ballistic missile [IBM] are further divided into two categories, the short range ballistic missile with the range of less than 1000 km and the medium range ballistic missile with a range between 1000 km and 3500 km. Thirdly, the long range ballistic missiles [LRBM] are the missiles with a range between 3500 km and 5500 km. Similarly the Intercontinental ballistic missile with the range of greater than 5500 km also comes under the category of long range missiles. Last but not the least, submarine launched ballistic missile [SLBM] having the same intercontinental range but it is launched from ballistic missile submarine. Hence, these are several ballistic missiles that are known by there range and payload.
Pakistan stands at a crucial juncture of history when India has achieved staggering success in extensive missile program which undoubtedly posed a serious threat to the fragile defense security system of Pakistan. Apart from minor range ballistic missiles like Trishul, Aksh and the anti tank Nag, Indian deployed Prithri, with its range of 150-250 km, which makes Pakistan entire territory vulnerable to its lethal attack. Besides that India has also developed long range Agni, which is equipped with inertial guidance and protected against electronic countermeasures, has the capability to deliver nuclear warheads as far as away as Beijing, Jakarta, Riyadh and Tehran. Moreover, the Polar space launch vehicle with intercontinental range capability is another missile under developed by India.
However, Pakistan was compelled to respond to Indian missile program therefore she first approached to China for supply of missiles and received a small number of short range tactical missiles in the late 1980s. On the transfer of these missiles, America raised several objections but surprisingly the same did little to restrain India from inducting missiles in South Asia. In order to maintain equilibrium between Pakistan and India, the former launched a missile research and development program of its own. In the course of time, Pakistan had been able to produce indigenous variety of ballistic missiles. In 1989, Pakistan was being able to build Haft -1 with a range of 80 km and a payload of 500 kg. Within the same year, she designed Haft -2 with an extensive range of 250 km. In July 1977, Pakistan tested her larger missile system the Haft -3 Ghaznavi with a range of 600 km and it is stated to have been a major breakthrough. In 1990s, moreover, Pakistan was successful in manufacturing liquid fuel Ghauri missiles and solid fuel Shaheen missiles with a range from 180-2000 km as well as the anti aircraft Anza and the anti tank Baktar Shikan. These missiles are based on highest scientific technology with highly refined guidance and control system. Pakistan, in 2005, also tested a cruise missile with a range of 700 km while in 2007 an air launched cruise missile with a range of 350 km was tested which can carry nuclear conventional warheads and can hit deep targets in India. Thus, the aforementioned are those indigenous ballistic missiles that are produced by Pakistan by the sheer dint of her own capabilities and competence.
To cut the long story short, ballistic missiles with the conventional warheads represent a tremendous development in modern war. These missiles can be effectively used to target airfields, arms and ammunition, depots, petroleum storage facilities communication juncture, etc. The invention of such missiles can undermine the victims will and capacity to resist aggression. keeping in view the Indian striking advancement in modern arsenal particularly in the ballistic missiles made essential for Pakistan to acquire highly scientific and standard system of ballistic missiles not for aggressive posture but for defensive posture. Since the first day, Pakistan has hostile relations with Delhi and the latter has been furiously opposed from its very creation. The tension between these two countries further heightened on the issue of Kashmir as it is the problem of life and death for Pakistan. .In order to maintain equilibrium in South Asia, Pakistan must sustain a ratio of one third of military industries with compare to Indian arsenals .Country like Pakistan which has long insecure border with India in her east and in her west Afghanistan is located, so in this context ballistic missile play a crucial role in securing the vast borders. It is crystal clear that daring troops are not much essential than modern warfare arsenals. Though Pakistan has been achieved a satisfactory level of ballistic missiles, there is always a need for doing more.