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Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan was born on 10th December 1750 in Devanhalli. Being the eldest son of Haider Ali, Tipu sultan succeeded after his father who was the ruler of independent state of Mysore in India. He was brave and well trained in military skills since his child hood; he assisted his father in many battles. Tipu was very intelligent and intellectual person got passion for books and had almost 2000 books in his personal library.  Since Haider Ali died of cancer in war of Chittur on 7th December 1782, after that Tipu Sultan came to the throne at age of 32. He worked for the welfare of his subjects and strived really hard for the betterment of and consolidation of his empire. Naturally he inherited the struggle against the British who were starting to influence and take over the control of India at that time. Tipu sultan continued the struggle of his father which he started against the British; he came to the throne at very crucial time. He fought British very skillfully they were never able to defeat Tipu as long as they fought without intrigues, conspiracies, and deceitfulness. He was gaining strength and making allies vigorously this thing irritated British who then started to approach his allies and tried to buy them to be on their side. This thing worked and the only reason Tipu Sultan got defeated was due to the infidelity of his loyal supporters and officials. He secured help of French, who were the main competition for British in order to politically colonize India; he sought support of Amir of Afghanistan and Sultan of Turkey. On the other hand British made alliance Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad.

 

In 1783 British planned to attack Mysore after attacking and capturing Bednur and Mangalore first, Tipu was in Chittur that he hurried towards Bednur and recovered Bednur after defeating British forces there in 1783. Then he defeated British at Mangalore and laid a siege to the ford. After treaty of Versailles between French and the British, the French retreated from the conflict leaving Tipu alone and ally less but he continued war. Once again British tried to attack Mysore but remained unsuccessful and on 29th January 1784 peace treaty was made between British and Tipu in order to prepare them. So, second Anglo-Mysore war ended with Tipu as a victor which made Marathas jealous and they made an alliance with Nizam and invaded Mysore in 1786 even they failed to get victory in April 1787 peace was made between the Peshwa and Tipu Sultan. Third Anglo-Mysore war started in 1790 in which British made an alliance with Marathas and Nizam this alliance defeated Tipu at his capital Seringapatam where he signed a humiliating treaty on 22nd of March 1972. Fourth Anglo-Mysore war proved to be the end of Tipu Sultan’s rule this battle started when Tipu Sultan again took help from the French and stared to revitalize his forces which were considered as violation of treaty and made British attack Mysore in 1798. Due to treacherousness of his officials and unavailability of proper French support inflicted annihilating defeat upon Tipu and his forces. He died martyred while fighting in May 1799 in the gateway of Seringapatam. He was given proper burial ceremony by the company officials. Tipu Sultan was an enlightened ruler treated his Hindu subjects with open mind. He introduced new warfare technologies and new ways of agricultural production. His Grand rule although blotched with continuous battles is still a symbol of glory, dignity and prestige.

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