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Tag Archives: pakistan

Islamization under Zia (1977-1988)

When Zia-ul-Haq took the power in his hands, there was a popular conception that every government paid only lip service to Islam and no sincere effort was ever made in this direction; the ruling class had rather resisted the enforcement of Islam. General Zia was aware of such feelings. So, …

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Partition of Bengal (1905-1911)

The partition of Bengal was the most important event during the rule of Lord Curzon. It was carried out mainly for the convenience of administration. Bengal in those days was the biggest province of India extending over 1, 89, 000 square miles with a population of 80 million. It was …

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Simla Deputation (1906)

The Simla deputation proved a landmark in the history of modern India, because for the very first time the Hindu-Muslim conflict, which stared with the Urdu-Hindi controversy, was lifted to the constitutional plane. The Indians were not satisfied with the Indian council Act of 1892. Especially, the act failed to …

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Separate Electorates

Separate Electorates are that type of elections in which minorities select their own representatives separately, as opposed to Joint Electorates where people are selected collectively. When minorities fear that they would not get representation in state affairs and government then they demand separate electorates. Same was the case with the …

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Establishment of All India Muslim League

After the creation of the Indian national Congress and its time as a ‘representative’ party for the people of the Indian sub-continent, there was felt a need to reassess its claims at unbiased representation. From the very start of its existence the Congress had shown clear its interest to safeguard …

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Minto-Morley Reforms (1909)

By 1909, there was seen a great deal of political consciousness amongst the Indians. Similarly, political parties like Indian National Congress and All Indian Muslim League had emerged. By then, the British were much influenced and affected by these political parties. As previous reforms and acts did not meet the …

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Kanpur Mosque Tragedy (1913)

The U.P Government granted a total of two and half lack rupees to widen the roads of the Kanpur and to fulfill other welfare works. This scheme also included AB road. The widening of this road became a serious issue. The real problem was that if it were widened straight, …

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Lukhnow Pact

Introduction        The Lucknow agreement took a new twist with change in Muslim League’s political doctrine. The Quaid-e-Azam inclusion in the Muslim league was a historic event, which gave new direction to Muslim league’s political struggle. Self-rule for India brought the Muslim league and the Congress closer to each other. The …

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The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms (1919)

Minto-Morley reforms, introduced in 1909, proved unsatisfactory for Indian people. Resultantly, Indians demanded more representation and called for greater self-government. This could not be achieved without a formal rapprochement between Congress and Muslim League. The Lucknow Pact of 1916 removed the sole hurdle in the attainment of self rule by …

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Jalianwala Bagh Massacre (1919)

The Amritsar massacre also known as Jalinawala Bagh Massacre. Where the British Indian army opened fire on gathering who gathered in Jalinawala Bagh for Bisakhi festival. According to official source 379 people were killed but according to private source number was much higher. In 1919 after the Rowlett Act, Indian …

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