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Political History

  • Government of India Act 1892

    Government of India Act 1892

    The Indian Councils Act 1892 was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The main provisions...

  • Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)

    Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)

    Lord Pethick-Lawrence, Secretary of State for India on February 19, 1946, announced in Parliament th...

  • Fatima Jinnah

    Fatima Jinnah

    Early Life: Fatima Jinnah was born in Karachi on 30th July 1893. Jinnah had seven siblings. Mohammad...

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (1928-1979)

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born on January 5, 1928. He was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Prime Minister of  Pakistan from 1973 to 1977. He was the founder of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), which is one of ... Read More »

Constitution of 1962

After the military coup of 1958, Ayub Khan waited for some time with the intention of paving public opinion in his favour. A legislative commission was established under the leadership of Justice Shahaab-ud-din. The commission forwarded a report on 6th May 1961. Justice Manzoor Qadir designed and drafted the entire ... Read More »

Referendum and General Elections of 2002

General Pervaiz Musharaf followed the trend of his military predecessors in ruler ship. Like Ayub Khan and Zia Ul Haq, he endeavored to legitimize the martial law rule by constitutional means, and he remained successful to legalize his military rule. No doubt, the military coup of Musharraf gave setback to ... Read More »

Constitutional Amendments

Amendments in constitution are a necessity to bring it into line with needs of the changing times. These amendments and adaptations keep the sacred instrument afresh and up-to-date. Similarly, the constitution of 1973 that came into force on 14th August 1973 was amended seven times during Bhutto regime. However, most ... Read More »

The Federal Council (Majlis-e-Shoora)

It was provided under the PCO that the President could constitute a Federal Council (Majlis-e-Shoora) to perform functions that were to be assigned to it by the President. This was a step taken to create a political lobby for Zia and his cronies and to groom these people in future ... Read More »

Chaudhry Fazal Elahi

Chaudhry Fazal Ellahi fifth president of Pakistan was born on 1, January 1904 in Malala village near Kharian. He belongs to an influential Gujjar family of Gujrat District in Punjab. He recieved his early education from his hometown and later he attended the fascinating Aligarh Muslim University in1920. He recieved ... Read More »

Round Table Conference

The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences to formulate future constitution of India in the light of suggestions given by the Indian Leaders. In Indian Act 1919, it was said that new reforms will be introduced in Indian Act 1929. So they started planning for 1929 Act. In 1927 ... Read More »

Bhutto’s Economic Reforms

Bhutto and his party came to rule by clamouring socialist reforms for the poor and deprived classes of the state. ‘Rotti, Kapra aur Makkan’ was there frequently enchanted slogan. Bhutto’s economic policies were influenced by socialist ideas and promises to the removal of feudalism. Rapid industrialization created a gulf between ... Read More »

Movement for the Restoration of Democracy

M.R.D stands for the movement for the restoration of democracy. This alliance was created in 1981 to oppose Zia. It comprised nine parties; National Democratic Party,   Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (MAI), Sindhi Awami Tahreek, (Pakhtoonkhwa), Awami National Party, Tehrik-e-Istiqlal, Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Mazdoor Kissan Party, Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Islam, Qaumi Mahaz-e-Azadi; ... Read More »

Combined Oppsition Party (1965)

On January 2, 1965, the first presidential election was held. Some 80,000 ‘basic democrats’, as members of urban and regional councils, caucused to vote. The presidential election of January 1965 resulted in a victory for Ayub Khan but also demonstrated the appeal of the opposition. Four political parties joined to ... Read More »

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