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1985 Elections

General Zia position was considerably strengthened by the referendum and he had become so confident that he then decided to hold general elections in the country. Thus on January 12, 1985, it was announced that elections for National and Provincial assemblies would be held on February 25, and 28, respectively. ... Read More »


Ayub Khan took over the body politic of Pakistan in 1958. He dominated the politics of Pakistan for almost a decade. Ayub Khan promulgated a new presidential constitution in 1962. Presidential elections were held in Pakistan on January 2, 1965.It was a memorable occasion as the it was year of ... Read More »

Government India Act of 1935

The Round Table Conferences could not achieve their objective and thus failed. However on the suggestions of Round Table Conferences white paper was issued in 1933 and efforts were started to make the constitution of India. A committee was setup under the chairmanship of Lord Linlithgow, the viceroy of India, ... Read More »

Benazirs First Regime

Benazir Bhutto, the first woman prime minister of a modern Muslim state. Although she inherited her father’s party, the PPP, and, beneficiary of dynastic politics and of the emotional ties of a large section of the electorate to her charismatic family has proven to be a mixed political blessing and ... Read More »

Nationalization under Bhutto

Nationalization is the term used when the government takes the control of anything that was ownned private previously. Nationalization was the policy that was implemented by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Bhutto according to his promise restored the economic order that was badly shaken by the war, attracted towards it. In the ... Read More »

The Eighth Amendment (1985)

General elections for the National and Provincial Assemblies were held in February 1985 on a non-party basis. No political party was allowed to nominate candidates in the elections. Before the parliament could meet on 23 March 1985, the Constitution was comprehensively amended through a President’s Orders, known as Revival of ... Read More »

Democratic Action Committee

Ayub Khan took over the politics of Pakistan in 1958. He formulated and enforced many policies to stabilize the country and legitimize himself. Land reforms, economic reforms, family law reforms, social reforms and constitutional reforms are among the most prominent. Ayub policies were criticize by a large number of urban ... Read More »

Nawaz Sharif’s First Regime

The IJI formed governments at the center and all the four provinces and Nawaz sharif became the prime minister of the state. Nawaz Sharif’s cabinet initially included eighteen ministers: nine from Punjab, two from the Islamabad Capital Territory, six from Sindh, and one from Balochistan. His cabinet was later expanded ... Read More »

Shaheed Ganj Dispute (1935)

  In 1935, Shaheed Ganj Movement was launched in the Punjab. It generated a great enthusiasm among the Punjabi Muslims in particular, and all the Muslims of the subcontinent in general. Before going into details of the movement, it seems pertinent to briefly deal with the history of the issue of Shaheed Ganj Mosque, which was the ... Read More »

Bhutto’s Nuclear Program

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was one of the rare political leaders who had natural instinct and broad vision to read the political situation vigilantly. Bhutto’s shrewdness and farsightedness led Pakistan towards the successful Nuclear Program. The pursuit of Nuclear Technology created hype in the political world especially in sub-continental region. When ... Read More »

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