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Development

Referendum and General Elections of 2002

General Pervaiz Musharaf followed the trend of his military predecessors in ruler ship. Like Ayub Khan and Zia Ul Haq, he endeavored to legitimize the martial law rule by constitutional means, and he remained successful to legalize his military rule. No doubt, the military coup of Musharraf gave setback to …

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Constitutional Amendments

Amendments in constitution are a necessity to bring it into line with needs of the changing times. These amendments and adaptations keep the sacred instrument afresh and up-to-date. Similarly, the constitution of 1973 that came into force on 14th August 1973 was amended seven times during Bhutto regime. However, most …

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The Federal Council (Majlis-e-Shoora)

It was provided under the PCO that the President could constitute a Federal Council (Majlis-e-Shoora) to perform functions that were to be assigned to it by the President. This was a step taken to create a political lobby for Zia and his cronies and to groom these people in future …

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Round Table Conference

The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of conferences to formulate future constitution of India in the light of suggestions given by the Indian Leaders. In Indian Act 1919, it was said that new reforms will be introduced in Indian Act 1929. So they started planning for 1929 Act. In 1927 …

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Bhutto’s Economic Reforms

Bhutto and his party came to rule by clamouring socialist reforms for the poor and deprived classes of the state. ‘Rotti, Kapra aur Makkan’ was there frequently enchanted slogan. Bhutto’s economic policies were influenced by socialist ideas and promises to the removal of feudalism. Rapid industrialization created a gulf between …

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Movement for the Restoration of Democracy

M.R.D stands for the movement for the restoration of democracy. This alliance was created in 1981 to oppose Zia. It comprised nine parties; National Democratic Party,   Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (MAI), Sindhi Awami Tahreek, (Pakhtoonkhwa), Awami National Party, Tehrik-e-Istiqlal, Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Mazdoor Kissan Party, Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Islam, Qaumi Mahaz-e-Azadi; …

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Combined Oppsition Party (1965)

On January 2, 1965, the first presidential election was held. Some 80,000 ‘basic democrats’, as members of urban and regional councils, caucused to vote. The presidential election of January 1965 resulted in a victory for Ayub Khan but also demonstrated the appeal of the opposition. Four political parties joined to …

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Islami Jamhoori Ittehad

Islami jamhoori ittehad was founded by Ghulam Mustafa jatoi in 1988. this movement was leaded by Nawaz Sharif. It has headquarters in parliament lodges Islamabad. Its ideology was conservatism based and official color was Green. It was the largest Right wing conservative alliance formed in September 1988 to oppose the …

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Communal Awards

Under the Act of 1919, after every 10 years new reforms were to be introduced in India by the Indian British Government and for this purpose a commission was formed. The commission was called the Simon Commission that was headed by Sir John Simon. This commission was failed in its …

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Land reforms of Bhutto

Z. A. Bhutto swept the elections on the riding wave of socialism. In pursuit of the economic program, reforms began to be made to attain the end and the end was equality in economic terms and empowering the small farmers. Pakistan was an agriculturist country where majority of the population …

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