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Foreign Policy

Simla Agreement (1972)

The immediate outcome of the War of 1971 between India and Pakistan was the change of government in Pakistan and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the majority party leader of West Pakistan assumed power on December 20, 1971. The War of 1971 resulted in the dismemberment of East Pakistan. Pakistan had lost …

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American Invasion on Afghanistan

American invasion on Afghanistan in the wake of 9/11 attacks on the world trade center was an event of paramount significance in the contemporary world history. The significance of the invasions lies in the fact that the challenge to American prestige and stature was accepted by the sole super-power as …

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Indo-China War 1962

India and China are considered the oldest civilizations in Asia. Both nations have enjoyed great relations for many years with each other. The people of both countries had cordial relation with each other as well.  In 1949, India became the second country to recognize China which proved to be another …

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SEATO

After the Second World War the polarization of the planet emerged into capitalist bloc led by United States and communist bloc led by USSR. Both were the expansionist powers and found that following the collapse of nearly all great powers had left them with a unique opportunity to dominate the …

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U.S. Sanctions

Pak-US relations have enjoyed closeness and friendship, yet they remain cold and have failed to develop a relationship of stability. The history of Pak-U.S. relations remained chequered. There have been ups and downs in their levels of understanding and collaboration. U.S. always has her vested and ideological interests from Pakistan. …

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Pakhtoonistan issue

Pakhtoons are an ethnic group largely inhabiting north-eastern frontier part of Pakistan and this is major ethnic group living in Afghanistan as well. From1940 onwards, when Pakistan movement was launched and it became obvious that British were going to leave the subcontinent at the end of 2nd World War. Some …

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SAARC (1981)

The term SAARC stands for “ The South Asian Association for Regional Co-orporation”. At the 13th  Saarc summit meeting held on 12th -13th November 2005, Saarc membership was expanded due to the participation of Afghanistan. The purpose of making Saarc was to bring together the South Asian nations as a …

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Lahore Summit (1974)

Background. The Second Islamic Summit Conference held from February 22-24, 1974 in Lahore was hosted by Pakistan and came to be known as the Lahore Summit. It was an extra ordinary summit that was held on the proposal of OIC Secretary General Tunku Abdul Rahman. The Second Islamic Summit Conference …

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American attack on Iraq 2003

The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the start of conflict known as Iraq war, or operation Iraqi freedom, in which a combined force of groups from united state, the United Kingdom, Austria and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Husain in 21 days of major combat operation. …

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Bhutto Swaran Singh talks 1962

There is a considerable amount of truth in the statement that the Kashmir issue has always been an obstacle in the way of peaceful and brotherly relations between Pakistan and India. Historically speaking, Kashmir was a predominantly Muslim state under the rule of Hindu Maharaja. However, it failed to cede …

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