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Era of Confusion: 1988-2001

Kashmiri fight for freedom (1988-2001)

Since the emergence of Pakistan, Kashmir has been the bone of contention between India and Pakistan. Kashmir’s’ have been in continuous struggle for independence from India Since 1947 but as they started using arms in their liberation struggle, a new phase of history began. It was the disputed 1987s elections ... Read More »


The last troop of Soviet Union left Afghanistan in 1989, after the withdrawal of the Soviet troops than Afghanistan faced the collapse and fragmentation because of the civil war “the Afghan tribal disputes and blood feuds”. A bloody civil war shattered this already war-ruined country into a larger fragmentation. There ... Read More »

U.S. Sanctions

Pak-US relations have enjoyed closeness and friendship, yet they remain cold and have failed to develop a relationship of stability. The history of Pak-U.S. relations remained chequered. There have been ups and downs in their levels of understanding and collaboration. U.S. always has her vested and ideological interests from Pakistan. ... Read More »

Pakistan and Iraq- Kuwait war of 1990

Pakistan being an Islamic country has always tried to make cordial relations with Islamic world. Its initial foreign policy was based on bringing the Islamic countries together and to create a strong kind of alliance to have an international say in the affairs of the globe.  The attempts of Pakistani ... Read More »

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)   The comprehensive Test Ban Treaty was finalized in 1996 after a thorough discussion for nearly a couple of decades. A number of serious efforts were made at the early stages of the treaty but they all were failed for one or other reason. ... Read More »

Gujral-Nawaz Talks

These decisions seemed to augur well for relations between the two countries. It was widely believed that Indo-Pakistan relations were definitely on the mend, especially when foreign secretary level talks were held in Islamabad in June 1997, where it was decided that working groups would be set up to address ... Read More »

Ballistic Missiles

In modern warfare, the ballistic missiles play an important role for the internal and external security of a state. These missiles largely enhanced both offensive and defensive capabilities of the developed countries and a handful of the third world countries like Argentina, Brazil, Pakistan, Egypt, India, etc. Countries like America, ... Read More »

Pakistan’s Nuclear Tests 1998

When British left Indian sub-continent, they left behind them a permanent source of conflict i.e. Jammu & Kashmir between its successor-states i.e. Pakistan and India in order to put a check on its potential competitors and to stop their potential from getting materialized. That very issue drove the whole history ... Read More »

Lahore summit 1999

The Lahore declaration symbolized an India-Pakistan bilateral agreement which was signed on 21st February 1999 by the Prime Minster of India and Pakistan i.e. Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif respectively. This declaration was held to the smooth the strained relationship between India and Pakistan on the issue of nuclear ... Read More »

Kargil Conflict 1999

Kargil conflict in 1999 was generally portrayed as one of the big events in the relation of two neighboring but hostile countries_ Pakistan and India. For Pakistan, it was a defensive strategy, which ultimately went towards a permanent conflict. This conflict erupted along the Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir. ... Read More »

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