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Nine Eleven Attacks

The September 11 attacks also known as 9/11 were a series of four coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States in New York and the Washington, D.C. areas on September 11, 2001. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamic militant group Al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger plans. The hijackers ... Read More »

Kashmiri fight for freedom (1988-2001)

Since the emergence of Pakistan, Kashmir has been the bone of contention between India and Pakistan. Kashmir’s’ have been in continuous struggle for independence from India Since 1947 but as they started using arms in their liberation struggle, a new phase of history began. It was the disputed 1987s elections ... Read More »

Afghan Jihad

A Brief Introduction to the Pak-Afghan Relations: Afghanistan is the only country which voted against Pakistan membership of the United Nation in 1947. The two countries had tensed relations with each other’s for almost quarter of a century but tensions were kept under control. During the wars of 1965 and ... Read More »

Bhutto’s Concept of Bilateralism

Bilateralism generally refers to theundertaking of the two sides equally, and politically it defines keeping equal relations with the two world powers, independent of their relation with other countries. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto assumed the leadership of Pakistan at the hour when it became deprived of its eastern wing and, Pakistan ... Read More »

Attack on the Indian parliament

Terrorism has been the menace that is haunting the contemporary world for a couple of decades. It is aimed at arousing invisible terror to secure the ulterior ends. Similar objectives were the driving force behind the execution of a plan aiming attack on the Indian parliament that produced serious repercussions ... Read More »

Pakistan-china boundary agreement 1962

The Sino-Pakistan boundary agreement finalizing the border between Pakistan and China was signed in March 1963. This agreement became quite controversial owing to Indian refusal to acknowledge it because she also asserts sovereignty over some of the areas. Besides this controversy, the agreement changed the regional balance by bringing Pakistan ... Read More »

Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement (1954)

World War II brought in its wake many new developments and events. The most immediate outcome of the war was the coming of a bipolar world being dominated by capitalist United States and the communist Soviet Union. Subscribing to two different and antithetical ideologies, the two powers indulged in a ... Read More »


The last troop of Soviet Union left Afghanistan in 1989, after the withdrawal of the Soviet troops than Afghanistan faced the collapse and fragmentation because of the civil war “the Afghan tribal disputes and blood feuds”. A bloody civil war shattered this already war-ruined country into a larger fragmentation. There ... Read More »

Kashmir Issue

Since the partition of the Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947, the Kashmir dispute has been an intractable one between them. They fought three wars over it in1948, 1965, and 1999, but have not been able to resolve it. The partition left the fate of over 550 princely ... Read More »

Iran-Iraq War (1980-88)

Iran and Iraq entered into a period of war stretching over 1980-88, basically known as the Persian Gulf War. The war which was initiated by Iraq, brought in its wake colossal damages for the bellicose neighbors viz, the war cost enormous lives and material things too. The idea of plunging ... Read More »

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