Abdul Samad khan was a great national hero who did not play a great role for the liberation of the Pashtun from the British, but also contributed his efforts to free the other oppressed nation of the subcontinent from the slavery of the British.
Abdul Samad khan was born on 7th of the july in 1907 in Tehsil Gulistan of British Baluchistan. His father name was Noor Muhammad who was a famous scholar. Abdul Samad khan had a brother Abdul Salam and two sister. Barkhudar khan was his grandfather who accompanied Ahmad Shah Baba in a great battle of panipat. His family member also fought against the British in maiwand and defeated the British. The entire life he spent for the freedom of people for this he spent half of his life in jail. But he did not stopped his struggle for freedom of the people and at last martyred on 2nd of December 1973.
Situation of the world and neighbor countries
In the end of the 19th century the British imperialism was on its peak because of capitalism. So the British started expansion policy outside the Europe. The British attack the Afghanistan for the first time in 1838 and again attack Afghanistan in 1978. Although they failed to succeed in these wars but they were able to annex the border areas of Afghanistan. Abdul Rahman was made Amir of Afghanistan by force. In 1892 the British decided to separate these areas from Afghanistan and to include it to India. The British divided these areas from Bolan to Chatral and from Miyan wali to Attack from Afghanistan by Durand line. After that the British made Peshawar the capital of NWFP and Quetta for the British Baluchistan. The British used the mind and Army power which enslaved the people. Sir Durand himself said in his book “across the Durand” that no doubts that the tribes are noble and the area is very hard to rule, but with the help of money and by construction of road and railway system we can make the people fool. At that time there was no threat to the British from the local people because people were slaves of the British. In these worsted condition Abdul Samad khan raised his voice for the rights of Baluchistan people. He helped the people educationally as well as politically.
Abdul Samad Khan got his early education from his father at home. He learned Arabic, Persian .and studied Hadith, Tafseer of Quran and the book of imam Ghazali in the age of seven year. He also got modern education from school and other great scholar. As he got the necessary knowledge which was the requirement of the beginning of 20th century so he contributed his efforts to enlightened their people by education. He wrote many books and pamphlets e.g. Pashto zhaba au likdoon, zama zhond, samad-ul-lughat and Pashto zaban aur rasm-ulkhat. Furthermore he translated the work of Imam Ghazali, sheikh saadi , Abdul Kalam Azad and Maulana Shibli Nomani which are as follows Azadi ka ufaq, Gulistan-i-saadi, Tarjuman-ul-Quran, Sirat-ul-Nabi and chema-i-sadaat.
Abdul Samad Khan showed his leadership quality even in his teenager. He was just 11 year old when he led the group of the students at Gulistan in confirmation with Khilafat Movement demonstrating against the British. So for the first time in his life he was caught by British and was remained 28 days at jail. In 1930 he decided to establish a democratic political party but he was arrested for six month. When he was released he at once went to Bombay and met Gandhi who was on the way to the England to attend round table conference. He also met there with great leaders who were working for the oppressed people i.e. Baacha khan and Ghous Bux Bezinjo. When he came back to Quetta he was arrested by British with the help of pro-British Jirga. After spending two year in jail when he was released, he increased his struggle for the oppressed people of Baluchistan along with Bloch leaders. In 1938 he issued a newspaper Istiqlal. It was his very great achievement this was the first newspaper issued in British Baluchistan. This newspaper helped the local people to get political awareness.
The articles written in the newspaper helped the people to get united against the British for their rights. To see the circumstances favorable the Abdul Samad khan and his courageous Bloch leaders Khuse Bukh Bezenjo and Moulana Obedullah of Bostan , launched a political party “Anjuman-i-watan” in 1939. Abdul Samad khan was made president of the party. It was first organized political party in Baluchistan.in 1939 Abdul Samad khan and Baacha khan toured the Baluchistan to tell the upcoming challenges from the 2nd world war. In 1942 when the Indian national congress started quit India movement against British. So to impose the pressure on British Anjuman-i-watan party also started the same movement in British Baluchistan. So with continuous efforts of both Bloch and Pashtun under the great leadership of Samad khan they compelled the British to withdraw from Baluchistan. When Pakistan was created in 1947, so according to 3rd June plan referendum was held in NWFP and Baluchistan in order to decide that whether wanted to join India or Pakistan. In Baluchistan “shahi” Jirga decided the fate of the people after a long debate between congress led by Abdul Samad khan and Ghuse Bux Bizenjo and the Muslim league camp led by Qazi Muhammad Essa and Mir Jaffir they joined Pakistan. After the creation of Pakistan Abdul Samad khan who was affiliated with congress and Baacha khan, change its manifesto and announced loyalty to the Pakistani state. In 1948 Samad khan met Najibullah and after met Bacha khan the government of Pakistan arrested him and considered him Indian agent. When he was released after six year in 1954 he formed a political party “wrore Pakhtoon” Pashtun Brotherhood. The aim of the party was to educate the local people. This party also demanded the holding of referendum on the question of accepting or rejection of American military aid. Once again he was arrested and was released by Lahore high court after his innocence was proved. One unit was establish in the country in 1955 he opposed it because he was on the favor of Provincial autonomy. Against this problem he and Bacha khan join together and made the foundation of National Awami Party (NAP). This party was basically made against one unit. In 1958 first Martial law was imposed and he was the first victim of Ayub khan. Abdul Samad was arrested on the 2nd day of martial law and was remained in jail for 14 years. He was in prison when he was told that NAP is divided in to two groups i.e. WALI khan and Bashani group. In 1969 NAP Wali khan group in meeting of IDAC (Itehad Demonstration action comitte) did not suggested anything and did not asked for a single province of Chatral to Bolan. After that Ayub khan called a conference and freed all political prisoners. When he released from jail he quit from NAP and founded Pakhtoonkhwa Mili Awamy party. He became the chairman of the party. In 1970 general election he won the Provincial seat by the flat form of PMAP. He was the first opposition leader of Baluchistan assembly. He appreciated the 1973 constitution and called Pakistan a sovereign state. His struggle for other people was quit by unknown persons when he was martyred on 2nd of December 1973.